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Phenylethylamine HCL is the salt form of phenylethylamine. Phenylethylamine treated with hydrochloric acid is readily crystallized into a salt form that is a monoamine alkaloid with two stereoisomers. The base form of phenylethylamine HCL is found naturally in some foods, such as chocolate, however food sources such as this are metabolized too quickly to affect the chemistry of the body.
The molecular structure of phenylethylamine HCL is easily distinguished as an aromatic compound, one which includes a benzene ring foundation, with a two carbon alkane chain that terminates in an amino group (nitrogen and two hydrogen) connected to the second position on the benzene ring. The IUPAC nomenclature name for this substance is two-phenylethylamine HCL.
Phenylethylamine HCL acts to increase dopamine levels within the brain as well as block the action of dopamine transmitters. This dual action effect causes a large build up of dopamine within the brain if exposure beyond the blood brain barrier is not terminated or otherwise controlled. Those with attention deficit disorder have been found to have lowered dopamine levels while patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have elevated dopamine levels. This fact reaffirms the severe effect of phenylethylamine HCL beyond the blood brain barrier on human biochemistry.
When allowed across the blood brain barrier, phenylethylamine HCL has a profound effect both neurologically and as a corollary emotionally in humans. However, phenylethylamine HCL has a very short half life within humans when contact is made prior to the blood brain barrier. A five- to 15-minute half life is all that is usually observed within human beings as phenylethylamine HCL is very quickly metabolized in the body by the monoamine oxidase A, monoamine oxidase B, aldehyde dehydrogenase and dopamine betahydroxylase enzymes present.
Phenylethylamine HCL is the foundation for several substances known as phenylethylamines. There are several dozen derivatives of phenylethylamine HCL with well documented effects that vary from unnoticeable under large dosages like phenylethylamine HCL to those whose are highly unresearched, such as 2C-B, which is labeled as a research chemical and is dosed with extremely intense effects at 31 mg and over.
The research of phenylethylamine HCL and the vast majority of its derivatives are often accredited to the works of chemist Alexander Shulgin. The detailed research of phenylethylamine HCL and its derivatives are documented in Alexander Shulgin's book "PiHKAL," which was release in 1991. It is in this work that the similarities of phenylethylamine HCL to other substances, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine and dopamine, are discussed and their similar effects within the biochemistry of the human body.